# Spherical coordinates

**Spherical coordinates** are a system for locating points in three-dimensional space using three coordinates: radial distance, polar angle, and azimuthal angle.

Radial Distance (r): This is the distance from the origin to the point. It is usually denoted by 'r' and is always non-negative.

Polar Angle (θ): Also known as the inclination or zenith angle, θ measures the angle between the positive z-axis and the line segment connecting the origin to the point. It ranges from 0 to π (0 to 180 degrees).

Azimuthal Angle (φ): Also known as the azimuth or azimuth angle, φ measures the angle between the positive x-axis and the projection of the line segment connecting the origin to the point onto the xy-plane. It ranges from 0 to 2π (0 to 360 degrees).

In spherical coordinates, a point is represented as (r, θ, φ).